Richard Lynn - Race Differences in Intelligence
RACE DIFFERENCES IN INTELLIGENCE began to be analyzed scientifically in the middle years of the nineteenth century. In the 1830s, Samuel Morton (1849) in the United States assembled a collection of skulls, measured their volume, and calculated that Europeans had the largest brains followed by Chinese, Malays, and Native American Indians, while Africans and finally Australian Aborigines had the smallest brains. He concluded that these differences in brain size accounted for the race differences in intelligence. A similar view was advanced a few years later in France by Paul Broca (1861, p. 304): "in general, the brain is larger in eminent men than in men of mediocre talent, in superior than in inferior races." About the same time Francis Galton (1969) in England arrived at the same conclusion by a different route. He assessed the intelligence of the races by the numbers of geniuses they produced in relation to the size of their populations. He concluded that the Greeks of classical Athens were the most intelligent people, followed in descending order by the lowland Scots, the English, the Africans, and the Australian Aborigines.